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Five holiday cookies from around the world
Whether you prefer your cookies buttery, spiced, crisp, or iced, there's something to suit your...ahem, taste. Check out the following holiday favorites from around the world.
These embossed, biscuit-like German cookies--usually flavored with anise--date back to the 14th century. They're traditionally made using a wooden or ceramic mold (human figures are a common theme) or a rolling pin decorated with carved-out depressions. Think of them as edible art, especially if you have the talent and patience to ice them.
For butter sluts like me, few things beat a well-made piece of shortbread. True shortbread is Scottish in origin (the recipe we're most familiar with today--flour, sugar, and butter--is attributed to Mary, Queen of Scots). Because the ingredients were considered luxury goods, shortbread became synonymous with festive occasions, including Christmas.
Shortbread has become ubiquitous throughout the UK, and similar (but inferior, in my humble opinion) cookies are found throughout Scandinavia. What makes good shortbread so special? The quality of the butter is paramount, but also the handling of the dough. Any baked good with a fat content that high is bound to be tasty, but overworking the dough--whether it's rolled or patted out by hand--ensures a cookie the equivalent of a hockey puck. And I'm a purist: no crystallized sugar or fancy shapes for me, please. Just give me the cookie.
[Photo credits: Flickr user JeMaSiDi]
These rich, Lebanese semolina cookie/pastry hybrids traditionally have their top half pressed into a decorative mold, while the bottom half is stuffed with a filling of chopped fruit and nuts such as dates, figs, walnuts, pistachios, walnuts, or almonds. Ma'amoul may be round or dome-shaped, or slightly flattened, and are categorically a form of shortbread due to their high fat (butter or shortening) content. They also contain rose and/or orange flower water, which gives them a subtle floral essence.
Ma'amoul are popular in the Levantine cuisine of the Eastern Mediterranean, as well as that of the Arab Persian Gulf states. They're a frequent site during religious holidays an festivals, including Ramadan and Purim. In Jewish communities, date-filled ma'amoul are a favorite Hanukkah treat.
Some liken these twice-baked almond cookies to "Jewish" or "Askenazic" biscotti, and it's a fairly accurate description. The name comes from the Yiddish for "almond bread." Like biscotti, they're shaped into a loaf, sliced, and baked twice to achieve a hard texture. They're traditionally dunked in tea.
It's believed that mandelbrot may have found it's way to medieval Eastern Europe via the significant Jewish population residing in Northern Italy. According to food writer and Jewish cuisine expert Joan Nathan, the durability of the cookies made them a popular Sabbath dessert, because they traveled well via merchants and rabbis. Mandelbrot are also served at Hanukkah, because they're parve (made with oil, instead of butter, aka dairy).
Although similar to Mexican Wedding cookies--those tender little shortbread domes dusted with powdered sugar--Melting Moments don't contain ground nuts (the Latin versions--which have been traced back to medieval Arab culture--always contain ground almonds or other nuts, which were then a delicacy).
I first discovered Melting Moments, which rely upon the addition of cornstarch for their trademark disintegrating quality, while working for a Kiwi chef in London. Charmed by the name, I soon discovered that these Australian/Kiwi cookies are holiday favorites. They're ridiculously easy to make, consisting primarily of butter, powdered sugar, and flour in addition to the aforementioned cornstarch (called "corn flour" in UK/Aussie recipes). They're often made as sandwich cookies filled with icing (because you can never have too many Melting Moments).
There are literally dozens of other holiday cookies out there, ranging from the anise-fragranced wafers of the Nordic countries and soft amareti or macarons of Italy, to the spice cookies of Central Europe. An easy affordable gift idea: bake up a batch that correlate to your recipient's ethnic heritage or favorite/dream vacation spot. Happy holidays!
[Photo credits: ma'amoul, Flickr user àlajulia;melting moment, Flicker user ohdarling]
Filed under: Arts and Culture, History, Learning, Festivals and Events, Food and Drink, Africa, Europe, North America, Oceania, South America, Lebanon, United States, Australia, New Zealand, Budget Travel, Middle East