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Five sustainable alternatives to turkey this Thanksgiving or holiday season
As a kid--an obnoxiously picky eater, at that--turkey was on my lengthy list of foods to avoid. I suspect it was the notoriously dried-out birds of my youth that caused my aversion. Today, I like turkey, but it's honestly not one of my favorite eating birds: I much prefer a good roast chicken or a game bird.
Game birds--both wild and farmed--are popular throughout much of Europe, especially in the UK, France, and Italy. Goose and duck are frequently seen in Asian cuisine, depending upon the country and region. And now, game birds are growing in popularity in the U.S.. Quail and duck aren't difficult to find on menus, but there's also squab, guinea hen, partridge, wood pigeon, etc.. Some birds, such as goose, heritage breed turkeys, or wild game birds may be seasonal or require order well in advance; just to give you an idea, the turkey farmer at my local market has people start signing up for Thanksgiving birds in March.
If you can't find these birds at your local farmers market on butcher shop, you can order them online. The important thing is to ask or research how the animals are raised, and make sure it's in a humane, ecologically responsible manner (see end of article for more information).
With the proliferation of farmed birds (mostly small-scale operations) in the U.S., I'm hard-pressed to recommend you shoot yourself some dinner (although I'm behind roadkill), but hunting is a discussion for another day. For the record, while I don't participate in it myself, I support hunting wildlife as a means of population control, as long as the animal in question is fully utilized.
As for you city slickers, just be aware that wild birds are much stronger in flavor, less tender, and in most instances need to hang for a few days so the proteins can break down and render the meat edible. So put away your bird call and shotgun unless you have the experience and permits, and do your shopping locally or online. No muss, no fuss, and trust me, plucking birds is a serious pain in the ass. Farmed birds are bred for more tender meat, are usually hens (also more tender and mild), and a great choice even if you've never cooked anything beyond a chicken breast.
Do note that goose and duck, are very fatty (the extra padding helps keep these aquatic birds buoyant) and you'll need to render the fat before you can cook the meat. The key to successfully preparing most birds, however, is to not overcook them. Your butcher or any number of cookbooks will be able to tell you how to prepare them. Some good resources: Nose to Tail Eating (Ecco) by Fergus Henderson, and River Cottage Meat Book (10 Speed Press) by Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall.
Sourcing information for all of the following bird species can be found at the end of this article.
Goose was once a British Christmas dinner favorite (oddly, turkey is now the bird of choice), and it's still popular in Germany. According to esteemed food writer Joan Nathan of Joan Nathan's Jewish Holiday Cookbook (Random House), German Christians traditionally ate goose for Christmas, and Jews cooked it for Hannukah. In her book, she provides a lovely family recipe for roast goose stuffed with chestnuts and apples that would make any Thanksgiving table proud.
[Photo credit: Flickr user turtlemom4bacon]
The Common Pheasant is native to Asia, but there are over 30 subspecies that have been introduced all over the world as a game bird; it's naturalized in Europe. In the U.S., we're most familiar with ring-necked pheasant: the males are striking, with emerald- and crimson-colored heads. Farmed pheasant is growing in popularity on menus, and is similar to dark chicken meat in flavor
While tiny and full of bones (imagine gnawing on a giant hummingbird drumstick), quail is a great choice if you're having a small gathering because you can serve one bird per person. They're very dainty and require simple preparation. Just butterfly them, thread on skewers and toss on the grill, or pan-fry. Quail meat is dark, juicy, and non-gamey; it pairs beautifully with dried fruit such as figs, dates, or cherries. Toss grilled quail atop some bitter greens dressed with a bacon vinaigrette, add some plumped dried fruit, and let the cooking juices wilt the greens. Dinner is served.
Duck is commonplace on fine-dining menus nationwide. While technically white meat (as is goose), it's similar to red meat: rich, rosy, and juicy with burnished, crackling skin. Many people are intimidated by cooking duck, but it's one of the easiest alterna-birds to work with, especially if you just use breast, thigh, or leg meat. Breasts will have a thick layer of fat beneath the skin; you'll need to score the skin in a cross-hatch pattern to help the fat render (Don't throw it out! Store it in a clean, sealed jar, and use it to fry potatoes or other foods for extra crispy goodness). Grill or saute breasts; legs take well to braising or confit.
There are three main breeds of duck sold commercially: Pekin, Muscovy, and Moulard. Pekin are the most tender and mild, while Muscovy are large, meaty, and stronger in flavor. Moulard are a Pekin/Muscovy cross; they're larger, more fatty, and stronger in flavor than Pekin, and are usually raised for foie gras.
A more civilized term for pigeon, these aren't your standard "rats-with-wings" variety. Squab are eating pigeons, and the meat is similar to duck--very juicy and rosy in color, with an almost livery flavor. Think of it as a smaller duck in terms of cooking technique.
Speaking of park pigeon, when I lived in the Bay Area, there was a semi-factitious activist group advocating the consumption of the out-of-control resident pigeon population (something I'd be completely behind if these birds weren't such carriers of disease). To prove their point, they cooked up a bunch of captured birds in a San Francisco park one day and had a well-documented pigeon picnic. I've always found that hilarious.
Even if you decide to just stick with turkey or switch to chicken this holiday season, the most important thing--besides technique--is to start with a great bird. It's worth the extra expense to get a pasture-raised animal that's been supplemented with exercise, sunshine, plant matter, and foraged bugs. You'll taste the difference, but it goes beyond just flavor.
Industrially-raised poultry (i.e. chicken and turkey) are the taste equivalent of Styrofoam with bland, watery meat plumped with saline solution; their feed is often supplemented with arsenic to produce pinker meat and act as a growth promotant and antiparasitic. They're hybridized to grow quickly and possess outrageously oversized breasts (because that's the part most people prefer to eat). Factory farming is also an inhumane, environmentally devastating industry with far-reaching impacts upon human health (Click here for more information on sustainable-vs-industrial turkey farming).
Sonoma County Poultry sells Liberty Ducks (actually a strain of Pekin ducks adapted to a slower, less stressful growing process) ships nationwide. Grimaud Farms of California's San Joaquin Valley sells Muscovy duck and guinea fowl online
D'Artagnan is a well-regarded purveyor of specialty foods. They have a strong focus on sustainability and humane poultry and game bird production and procurement, and sell farmed quail, pheasant, quail, goose, squab, poussin (technically, young chicken, although sometimes game hens are sold under this name); capon (castrated rooster, which makes for flavorful, tender meat); guinea hen, and wild Scottish wood pigeon, grouse, pheasant, and Red-legged partridge online
Mad Hatcher Poultry in eastern Washington produces quail, squab, poissin, and quail (heritage turkey and rabbit, too).
[Photo credits: roast goose, Flickr user Herman Saksono; cook, Laurel Miller]