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Top five travel documents to email yourself before you travel
If your passport mysteriously goes missing from the hotel security box or hostel front desk, or you're mugged or robbed on the road, scanning a back-up copy can save you hours of paperwork and waiting. If you need a visa for travel, scan a copy of it, as well.
2. Medical and travel insurance cards (if applicable)
Not all medical insurance covers travel outside of the U.S., so check before you get on a plane. If you plan on visiting a region prone to civil unrest, natural disasters, or general sketchiness, have a medical condition, or are a fan of adventure travel, travel insurance might be worth looking into.
3. Bank and credit card collect call numbers
Keep the bank phone numbers nearby. It won't bring your cards back if they're lost or stolen, but at least you can report and cancel/put holds on them, ASAP. Most financial institutions have collect call numbers you can use from a foreign country.
4. Emergency contacts and relevant health information
At a recent appointment with a new physician, he noted that I was allergic to penicillin, and asked what happens if I take it. I explained I have a family history of anaphylaxis, and he asked why I don't wear a medical alert bracelet, especially given my occupation as travel writer. It's a good idea that never would have occurred to me. So while you're typing up that list of contacts, including doctors, add in any life-threatening allergies or medical conditions. Should you wind up in a medical emergency, odds are someone, somewhere, will speak English. Or write it down in the language of the country you're visiting (Lonely Planet Phrasebooks are invaluable for this kind of translation, even if you need to say it in Urdu or Thai).
Be sure to send copies of your travel itinerary to family and/or a close friend. If you're backpacking and don't know where you'll be staying or don't have a world phone, the ubiquitousness of global cyber cafes makes it easier than ever to stay in touch, even in rural areas.
U.S. Department of State contact info/Embassy and Consulate list
If you spend a lot of time overseas, especially if you fall into the category cited in #2, it's a very good idea to register your trip with the U.S. Department of State. In the event of an emergency requiring evacuation, you'll be in their system. It's also helpful to keep the embassy/consulate link in your inbox and on your person, in case you or a fellow traveler runs into trouble.
Some countries or regions require you to present this, to prove you've had the necessary vaccinations before being admitted entry. Admittedly, I've never actually had to produce this document, but better safe than denied. For a list of recommended and required inoculations for destinations, go to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention site.
[Photo credit: Flickr user cubicgarden]