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Iranian and British national museums face off over artifact
In anticipation of displaying the cylinder in Tehran, the National Museum of Iran has spent $200,000 to enhance its security systems, but now it has nothing to display. The UK now faces the possibility of having all its scientific and cultural missions to Iran canceled. The move is similar to what Egypt did to the Louvre a few months ago in protest over some artifacts stolen from the Valley of the Kings.
The Cyrus cylinder was made in 539 BC to commemorate Cyrus the Great's conquest of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The inscription is significant for several reasons. It mentions returning exiles to their homeland, which might refer to the end of the Jews' Babylonian captivity. Some scholars have written that this passage and others about just rule make the cylinder is the world's first declaration of human rights, although it is by no means comparable to a modern constitution. The text is online here.